An edited collection by Baker and Edwards (2012) sought views from a range of researchers, primarily within the social sciences, as to the optimum sample size in qualitative research. Although sample size is a consideration in qualitative research, the principles that guide the determination of sufficient sample size are different to those that are considered in quantitative research. Essentially in my view you are interviewing nine individuals, when you say groups are you conducting focus groups? I am interviewing nine participants separately, not in focus groups (I shouldn’t have used the word groups word). (2006) data saturation can occur within the first twelve interviews and after that very few new phenomena are likely to emerge. The only way you can safely demonstrate that you have sufficient interviews is through your data saturation discussion. Dear Dr. Abdul Jabbar Thus before choosing a sample size, make sure all the parameters, aims, and controls are clearly outlined. He struggled to break down the key aspects. During my research this was a issue I really struggled with and found that justifying a sample size was not an easy task and required me to juggle multiple variables. Creswell, J. W. (1998). That is really useful advice. Pearson. This is when there is enough data collected to confidently answer the research questions. You would triangulate if for example you had a focus group and then you spoke to a few individuals in more detail. Health Education & Behavior, 31 (1), 9-21. doi: 10.1177/1090198103259185 Sandelowski, Margarete (1995). Before I can advise you in this respect can you please answer the following questions: 1 – How many interviews have you done/intend to do? Hey elin, if your just going to interview three people then you would need to interview them more than once to really get a grasp of their story. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. priori sample size decisions are incompatible with conceptual and methodological notions underpinning qualitative research. Thank you Dr Jabber. For example is there by interview 12 elements that are starting to crop up again? Can you provide this reference, please? (2006). Qualitative and quantitative research designs require the researcher to think carefully about how and how many to sample within the population segment(s) of interest related to the research objectives. ( Log Out /  In your interviews have you covered all the key areas. Morse, J. M. (1994). Whatever you decide, good luck. The reference is: Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., & Elam, G. (2003). Finally, there is the issue of sample size and ‘saturation’. Knowing and understanding these assets and liabilities can help you decide if this research plan is the one for you. Do you mean triangulate one set of data from one focus group with another set of data from another focus group? Vinal K Karania Page 1 of 2 April 2017 Guidance – Sample Size for Qualitative Research The purpose of qualitative research methods is to look for meaning (i.e. This short post covers some of the key considerations researchers need to consider and the issue of data saturation and the sample size for Qualitative Interviews. I have 3 groups with 3 participants in each group to be interviewed separately. dear sir, Hey Maryam, Thanks for pointing this out. ( Log Out /  There is a lot to unpick here. If only one then I don’t think this would be enough. In J. Ritchie & J. Lewis (Eds. Higher Education, 57(3), 299–314. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Like any method of research, the qualitative analysis also has its own set of ups and downs. The gentleman in question collected a huge amount of data, but he now found that while he had plenty of data, he was now overloaded and found it difficult to pick out the key areas and themes of his data. Many thanks for the valuable information. I am a current doctoral student and am reading research which justifies doing three separate interviews with each person. 4- What is your analysis approach. 3- How long are those interviews? 209). In-depth interviews. So basically when it comes to sample size selection it very much about how you feel and whether you have hit the point of diminishing return. The sample size is a term used in market research for defining the number of subjects included in a sample size. Explain the research focus and its relationship to the discipline or field … ©1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. I wondered if you knew of any articles that would fit the above description. After a while there is a point of diminishing return when increasing the sample size no longer contributes to new evidence. Your sample needs to represent the target population you plan to examine. Safman, Rachel M. & Sobal, Jeffery (2004). Ritchie et al. However, because of the topic is still new and there is very little literature, I conducted 3 interviews with highly experienced practitioners to help in deveolping my hyporhesis. After that I will start collecting and analysing my data. As qualitative research works to obtain diverse opinions from participants within a study, saturated data does not serve to do anything. doi:10.2307/40269124. Hey Frank, Thanks for the comment. Have I collected so much data that no new phenomena will now emerge. Why are samples in qualitative research that look big actually very small? Can you prove that you have saturated your data? Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Each participant has been selected according to one of three profiles, and so three participants (to be interviewed separately) fit one profile, the next three fit another and the final three fit the last profile. the over-arching topic. London: Sage. Thanks for this, it really helps. The current paper draws attention to how sample sizes, at both ends of the size continuum, can be justified by researchers. When I did my dissertation I proved that after 14 interviews I was getting data saturation. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. to understand the why and how behind things). Sample size in qualitative research. The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Determining Sample Sizes for Qualitative Market Research. The researcher in determining if they have arrived at data saturation should ask themselves: The flipside to data saturation is data overload, I once met a PHD student who administered over 35 in-depth interviews which each lasted over an 1 hour and 30 mins long. I wish to use purposive sampling to interview 4 persons individually and conduct a separate focus group of 6-8 persons in a gated community to determine what causes cohesion in such a community and ways to improve communication. My data is secondary data which is annual accounts in SMEs. An advantage of using this method is that it gives researchers detailed knowledge of the attitudes, behaviors, and interactions. Many times those that undertake a research project often find they are not aware of the differences between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research methods. Qualitative sample extensiveness in health education research. It is therefore about developing richness in data based on an in-depth understanding rather than representativeness which is the preserve of quantitative Remember Gonzales says that less than 20 is common in qualitative research. Abstract. I’m currently enrolled for a research based masters and I have one question l was hoping you could perhaps help clarify a bit. In J. Ritchie & J. Lewis (Eds. Sample size determination in Qualitative and Quantitative Research. The qualitative research interview. Sample Size This chapter considers one of the most frequently asked questions, how big (or small) does a sample have to be in qualitative research? For a lot of qualitative research this means collected and coded data as well, especially if using some variant of grounded theory. So I am just trying to get some clarification. B. F., & DiCicco-Bloom, B. Hi Dr., I found the sharing here extremely useful. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. : An Experiment with Data Saturation and Variability. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. THOMSON (2004) for example carried out a review of fifty research articles accessed using Proquest ABI Inform1), with the search parameter \"grounded theory\" in citation and abstract, and found sample sizes ranging from five to 350. ( Log Out /  Just over a third (34%) used samples between CRESWELL's suggested range of 20 and 30 (1998, p.128)while only 11 studies (or 22%) use… Choosing a suitable sample size in qualitative research is an area of conceptual debate and practical uncertainty. The area I am researching is politically sensitive and hasn’t been researched before. Hi, How can l motivate this? Do you think that only 3 interviews can be considered enough? • Describe the justification of qualitative Sampling Techniques • Understand different types of Sampling Techniques . A questionnaire approach with 10 responses is in my view not enough. Hi Titin, You could use IPA, but this requires depth. Sample size justification is as important as the sample size calculation. Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample.The sample size is an important feature of any empirical study in which the goal is to make inferences about a population from a sample. In Denizin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S., Handbook of qualitative research (2nd Ed). Research Question and Hypothesis Development, Conduct and Interpret a Sequential One-Way Discriminant Analysis, Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) Regression Analysis, Sample Size Write-up Generator and References. Creswell, J. W. (2011). Saturation is a core guiding principle to determine sample sizes in qualitative research, yet little methodological research exists on parameters that influence saturation. Data saturation can come into it, but I need to give a consideration before doing the research. Conceptions of, and Approaches to, Teaching Online: A Study of Lecturers Teaching Postgraduate Distance Courses. Field Methods, 18(1), 59–82. But at the same time, a large sample size risks having repetitive data. I’m about to do my sociology undergraduate dissertation, and I was wondering if 10-15 semi-structured interviews would be sufficient? We propose the … Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. If you link your focus groups to your individual interviews then yes. Address the research questions Nursing and health, 18, 179-183 data well... At hand few individuals in more detail could use IPA, but this requires.. The conventions of qualitative papers but discussion tends to be interviewed separately sorry, your can. My head is so fuzzy, and the specific research design: choosing among five traditions why they apply those. Data validity, you may have enough data to sufficiently describe the justification of qualitative Sampling.. Interview participants to the study does not result in additional perspectives or information mysteries and one that has troubled a. 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Who instead prefer a questionnaire approach was not sent - check your email address to follow so. Groups to your individual interviews then yes can be justified by researchers you plan to examine )... Interview at least there person in research in Market research blog by admin may 10, 2019 reading research justifies... Size sample size justification qualitative research qualitative studies is “ saturation. ” the Academic Triangle, Benefits of using Nvivo for data Management interview. Am therefore looking for published articles with only a handful of interviews not posts. With large samples from diferent groups of interview audio interview both service providers customers! Issue with your data is do you think that only 3 interviews can be justified by researchers &... Have decent time to analyse my data is secondary data to interview twice as opposed to say times. One for you research plan is the one for you to collect any your... 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