He obtained resolutions from the Senate that Caesar should lay down his command (presumably at its terminal date) but that Pompey should not lay down his command simultaneously. The subsequent partial recuperation of the Greco-Roman world under the principate suggests, however, that Caesarism was the lesser evil. He had less than a year’s grace for this huge task of reconstruction before his assassination in 44 bce in the Senate House at Rome on March 15 (the Ides of March). to Pompey's death and the start of the Alexandrian War in the autumn of the following year. Caesar's own legions were sent back to Italy (except for the Sixth): some of their soldiers had been in his service for twelve years, and they were looking forward to their pension. Unable to raise armies, the Senate was helpless. Julius Caesar was assassinated by about 40 Roman senators on the "ides of March" (March 15) 44 BCE. the supplement of dionysius vossius to caesar's first book of the civil war. He thus committed the first act of war. The mistake wasn't in letting the situation get that far, but in that they believed the Roman and Italian people would rally to defend the Republican system. The marriage link between Pompey and Caesar had been broken by Julia’s death in 54 bce. The Senate demanded Caesar's First and Fifteenth Legions to be sent to the east. In 49 BCE, on the seventh of January, the Senate demanded Caesar to hand over his ten well-trained legions to a new governor. The Civil Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [145k] Book 2 [83k] Who was the last monarch of the house of Hanover? In the night of 10/11 January, the Thirteenth legion advanced to Rimini, where he could control the passes across the Apennines. (The tense atmosphere of distrust is described here.) (He had given it to all of Cisalpine Gaul, north of the Po, in 49 bce.) As a safeguard for Caesar against this, there seems to have been an understanding—possibly a private one at Luca in 56 bce between him and Pompey—that the question of a successor to Caesar in his commands should not be raised in the Senate before March 1, 50 bce. He was unaware of the fact that his opponents, the last republican diehards, had been able to regroup in Africa while he was honeymooning in Egypt. They were sent to the east, where they had to defend Syria. The Fifteenth, which seems to have sided with Caesar, and the new Sixteenth were ordered to occupy Africa, but were annihilated. But Italy was skeptical about its champions, and showed little enthusiasm to defend the senatorial constitution. Download: A text-only version is available for download. Caesar’s success in building up his political power had made the champions of the old regime so implacably hostile to him that he was now faced with a choice between putting himself at his enemies’ mercy or seizing the monopoly of power at which he was accused of aiming. During his conquest of Gaul, Caesar had been equally busy in preserving and improving his position at home. He rushed to Córdoba in Andalusia, where two legions (commanded by Marcus Terentius Varro) surrendered to Caesar (September). Civil War Politics in Rome became increasingly hostile while Caesar was in Gaul. The campaign of Ilerda and defeat of Afranius and Petreius. Caesar had to make sure that, until his entry on his second consulship, he should continue to hold at least one province with the military force to guarantee his security. By this time, however, the three parties that counted politically were all entrapped. Julius Caesar The Civil War Audiobook MP3 CD NEW SEALED. Caesar had the support of the people and Pompey had the support of the aristocrats. He increased the size of the Senate and made its personnel more representative of the whole Roman citizenry. Caesar pursued Pompey from Thessaly to Egypt, where Pompey was murdered by an officer of King Ptolemy. The answer can only be guessed from what he did do in the few months available. See if your head can wear the crown of knowledge with this quiz. An overview of Cleopatra's relationship with Julius Caesar. He must in fact have known that Pompey the Great would not have accepted a pardon. The Civil War is Caesar's masterly account of the celebrated war between himself and his great rival Pompey, from the crossing of the Rubicon in January 49 B.C. Rex Stout Nero Wolfe Mystery SOME BURIED CAESAR Unabridged Audio Book Cassette . They had been goaded into this volte-face by the increasingly monarchical trend of Caesar’s regime and, perhaps at least as much, by the aristocratic disdain that inhibited Caesar from taking any trouble to sugar the bitter pill. Meanwhile, Crassus still had never completely overcome his … All content copyright © 1995–2020 Livius.org. Even Pompey became jealous and soon Caesar and Pompey became rivals. Pharnaces was defeated in a rapid campaign at Zela ("I came, I saw, I conquered", veni, vidi, vici). Having pacified Egypt, Caesar and Cleopatra could spend some time together - at least enough for Cleopatra to claim to have become pregnant of a son, Caesarion - but then Caesar hurried off to Asia Minor, where Pharnaces II, the son of Mithridates of Pontus, had challenged Roman authority, and allied himself to the tribe of the Sarmatians. Julius Caesar conquers Gaul and ignites a civil war. Death of Caesar. Painting by … Winning the war, Caesar became Roman dictator for life. Before it had assembled for the first time, Caesar was already on his way to Hispania, in the meanwhile proposing a law granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul. Rome was officially in a civil war. Cicero acted vigorously against Marcus Antonius since he belonged to the group of senators which were committed to ending every relation with Caesar supports and civil war. At least, that is what Caesar said. This was not, however, the heart of the matter. Again, Caesar showed clemency, sparing the enemy commanders and disbanding the defeated legions. ), The united army, however, was defeated (7 July), and Caesar had only one option: to march inland, cross the Pindus mountains and defeat Pompey's pursuing army somewhere in Greece on a more suitable place. Next day Marcellus (without authorization from the Senate) offered the command over all troops in Italy to Pompey, together with the power to raise more; and Pompey accepted. In 46 he crushed their army at Thapsus and returned to Rome, only to leave in November for Farther Spain to deal with a fresh outbreak of resistance, which he crushed on March 17, 45 bce, at Munda. Either alternative would result in a disastrous civil war. Julius Caesar began a civil war in Rome by defeating other members of the Triumvirate to become the dictator with total power. This page was created in 1997; last modified on 16 April 2020. war, Caesar was informed of these expressions by some persons who were present at the conversation. He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and laid the foundations of a truly Mediterranean empire. Moreover, the legions that were present in Italy, were unreliable: for example, the fifteenth had been with Caesar in Gaul. Home » Articles » Person » Caesar » Caesar (06), About Pictures Sources Countries Languages Categories Tags Thanks FAQ Donate Contact Articles Stubs. Caesar’s message was peremptory, and the Senate resolved that Caesar should be treated as a public enemy if he did not lay down his command “by a date to be fixed.”. Pompey's soldiers were enlisted in four new Caesarian legions (XXXIV-XXXVII). Commentary: A few comments have been posted about The Civil Wars. He started to train his army in the valley of the Moselle, far away from the Senate's spies. Julius Caesar, marble bust; in the Vatican Museums, Vatican City. Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a military commander, politician and author at the end of the Roman Republic.. Caesar became a member of the First Triumvirate, and when that broke up, he fought a civil war against Pompey the Great. Gaius Cassius Longinus, who was the moving spirit in the plot to murder him, and Marcus Junius Brutus, the symbolic embodiment of Roman republicanism, were both former enemies. The Civil Wars. If Caesar refused to obey, he would be declared an enemy of the state; the Senate would be forced to appoint a commander with extraordinary powers. By Julius Caesar. In 59 bce Caesar had already resurrected the city of Capua, which the republican Roman regime more than 150 years earlier had deprived of its juridical corporate personality; he now resurrected the other two great cities, Carthage and Corinth, that his predecessors had destroyed. This was only a part of what he did to resettle his discharged soldiers and the urban proletariat of Rome. But even if they were acting on principle, they were blind to the truth that the reign of the Roman nobility was broken beyond recall and that even Caesar might not have been able to overthrow the old regime if its destruction had not been long overdue. Despite the great risks of winter navigation, seven legions were carried to modern Albania in January 48 BCE, but Caesar's navy was defeated and the remaining four legions could not be ferried to the east. Caesar did not waste his time. It turned out differently, because Caesar was in fact furious that he was not given the chance to pardon his eternal rival Pompey. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. When he entered Rome, a city where he had not been for ten years, Caesar pardoned instead of massacred his enemies and created a new Senate, which would authorize Caesar's acts (April 49). $21.10. On January 1, 49 bce, the Senate received from Caesar a proposal that he and Pompey should lay down their commands simultaneously. Some stood to lose, rather than to gain, personally by the removal of the autocrat who had made their political fortunes. If there were to be an interval, Caesar would be a private person during that time, vulnerable to attack by his enemies; if prosecuted and convicted, he would be ruined politically and might possibly lose his life. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. In doing so, he crossed the river Rubicon, thereby invading Italy and provoking the Second Civil War. He then returned to Rome to start putting the Greco-Roman world in order. Caesar invades Italy, Sardinia, Sicily. This eventually happened in the battle of Pharsalus, where Caesar's more experienced men overcame Pompey's larger army (9 August; text; another text). XIX.--Between Pompey's and Caesar's camp there was only the river Apsus, and … When Caesar met Cleopatra in Alexandria, he was captivated by the young woman's charms and chose her side in the Alexandrine War: in the spring of 47 BCE, he defeated Ptolemy. One of the camps has been identified at Hermeskeil. The issue was whether there should or should not be an interval between the date at which Caesar was to resign his provincial governorships and, therewith, the command over his armies and the date at which he would enter his proposed second consulship. Caesar's perspectives did not look great: nine of his legions were still on duty in Gaul (text). If he brought his veteran armies across the river Rubicon in northern Italy, the Republic would be in a state of civil war. Almost 6,000 Roman soldiers were killed, and when Caesar surveyed the battlefield at sunset and saw the bodies of the dead senators, he remarked: "Well, they would have it thus.". (The question whether this was lawful remains unanswered: in 52, the People's Assembly had allowed Caesar to run for consul without being present.) Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! But almost to the page, it is simply a description of the tactics, happenstances and results of battle after battle. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Caesar then returned to Rome, but a few months later, now with the title of dictator, he left for Africa, where his opponents had rallied. Caesar won, along with conservative Marcus Bibulus. After his return, Caesar was made dictator. Meanwhile the cohesion of the triumvirate had been placed under strain. He was also generous in granting Roman citizenship to aliens. After this, Pompey irresolutely veered further and further away from Caesar, until, when the breach finally came, Pompey found himself committed to the nobility’s side, though he and the nobility never trusted each other. Many people dispute what the first major battle of the Roman civil war was however these are the most people decide on. Caesar decided to attack the army first and recruited at least fourteen new legions (numbered XVI-XXX). These laws were duly passed. This manoeuvre would have ensured that Caesar would retain his commands until the end of 49 bce. NOW 50% OFF! bce , Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 bce , Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 bce ), victor in the civil war of 49–45 bce , and dictator (46–44 bce ), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March. If he were to stand in 49 bce for the consulship for 48 bce, he would be out of office, and therefore in danger, during the last 10 months of 49 bce. In a secret alliance with Cicero, Octavian promised to veterans and soldiers that he will revenge Caesar’s death and he will generously reward anyone who move on to his side. When they arrived, they learned that Pompey had been murdered by soldiers of the ten-year-old king Ptolemy XIII, who hoped to gain Caesar's support in his quarrel with his older sister Cleopatra VII. Instead, they remained in Italy. What would he have done with this time? Gaius Julius Caesar: Civil War Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar. Caesar's Civil War resulted from the long political subversion of the Roman Government's institutions, begun with the career of Tiberius Gracchus, continuing with the Marian reforms of the legions, the bloody dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and completed by the First Triumvirate over Rome. An overwhelming majority in the Senate (400 against 22) wished both dynasts to lay down their extraordinary commands before the consular elections in December 50. On January 10–11, 49 bce, Caesar led his troops across the little river Rubicon, the boundary between his province of Cisalpine Gaul and Italy proper. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. This issue had already been the object of a series of political manoeuvres and countermanoeuvres at Rome. For Caesar's soldiers, on the other hand, everything depended on this one campaign: if they failed, they would never receive their pension. Caesar obeyed, but discovered that the legions were never employed in Syria. Pompey defeated Caesar in 48 BC at the Battle of Dyrrhachium, but was himself defeated much more decisively at the Battle of Pharsalus which marked the victory of Caesar and was the turning point of the war. Only guesses are possible, for Caesar’s assassination condemned the Romans to another 13 years of civil war, and Rome would never again possess sufficient manpower to conquer and hold Babylonia. He was in a better position than Caesar. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? The boy's body was found in the Nile (27 March) (text). The issue was brought to a head by one of the consuls for 50 bce, Gaius Claudius Marcellus. $19.99. Would Caesar have succeeded in recapturing for the Greco-Roman world the extinct Seleucid monarchy’s lost dominions east of the Euphrates, particularly Babylonia? Meanwhile, Pompey was in Greece, and by drawing upon the resources of the eastern provinces and some client kings, he managed to raise an army of nine legions and a fleet of 300 ships, commanded by Bibulus (see above). Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. $19.99. The actual question of substance was whether the misgovernment of the Greco-Roman world by the Roman nobility should be allowed to continue or whether it should be replaced by an autocratic regime. 30m left . Having defeated Pompey and having calmed Egypt and Asia, the dictator was free to return to Rome (September 47). Curio then obtained on December 1, 50 bce, a resolution (by 370 votes to 22) that both men should lay down their commands simultaneously. He later went to Egypt, where he became involved in the Egyptian civil war and installed Cleopatra on Egypt’s throne. When Caesar was in Gaul and organized the conquered territories, Pompey and Crassus tried to enlarge their power too. When he was finally removed, it wasn’t a legal repudiation at the ballot box—it was the grisly assassination of a dictator perpetuus, and the damage … The outbreak of civil war. And would Rome’s hitherto inexhaustible reservoir of military manpower have sufficed for this additional call upon it? The Battle of Munda was fought in March 45 BC and was the final battle of Julius Caesar's civil war and allowed him to return to Rome to rule as dictator. Fully aware of the momentous nature of his decision, Caesar ignored the warning and began to march south on Rome. Massilia refuses to admit Caesar. The Internet Classics Archive | The Civil Wars by Julius Caesar. However, it turned out that the Senate had made a disastrous mistake. Free shipping . The invader soon received reinforcements (the legions V, VIII, XII, XVI), and two months after the start of the Civil War, Caesar was master of Italy and had hunted down his enemies to the heel of Italy, from where Pompey and the majority of the senators fled eastward, to Greece (17 March). Two additional legions were still on their way to Greece but would arrive soon. Caesar then went to the Middle East, where he annihilated the king of Pontus. Toward the end of 49 bce, he followed Pompey across the Adriatic Sea and retrieved a reverse at Dyrrachium by winning a decisive victory at Pharsalus on August 9, 48 bce. No personalities emerge amidst this bloodbath. He found time in the year 46 bce to reform the Roman calendar. (Italy was now defended by seven newly recruited legions: I, II, III, IIII, XXXI, XXXII and XXXIII. The fate of Crassus’s army had shown that the terrain in northern Mesopotamia favoured Parthian cavalry against Roman infantry. Thus clemency was probably not just a matter of policy. It is probably at this early stage of the war, that constituted the Sixteenth legion. Free shipping. The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul, Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45. They also failed to recognize that by making Caesar a martyr they were creating his posthumous political fortune. Julius Caesar ruled Rome as unquestioned dictator until his assassination March 15, 44 B.C. He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. The first bout of the civil war moved swiftly. ''The Commentaries on the Civil War'' is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. The Civil War - written by Gaius Julius Caesar and three of his followers - recounts the events of the civil war between the Caesar and Pompey the Great, including the latter's defeat and the subsequent "mopping-up" of his partisans in Egypt, Pontus, North Africa and Spain. In March, Caesar's colonel Mark Antony (82-30 BCE) managed to reinforce him with the other four legions. The election was sordid—even Cato, with his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in favour of one of Caesar's opponents. In 49 bce Caesar drove his opponents out of Italy to the eastern side of the Straits of Otranto. Caesar had not hesitated to commit atrocities against “barbarians” when it had suited him, but he was almost consistently magnanimous in his treatment of his defeated Roman opponents. His physical constitution was unusually tough, though in his last years he had several epileptic seizures. On 10 January 49 BC, Roman general Julius Caesar defied an ultimatum set to him by the Senate. However, the question of replacing Caesar was actually raised in the Senate a number of times from 51 bce onward; each time Caesar had the dangerous proposals vetoed by tribunes of the plebs who were his agents—particularly Gaius Scribonius Curio in 50 bce and Mark Antony in 49 bce. To him, the situation was clear: the Senate had seven legions in Hispania without commander, and Pompey was in Greece without army. After picking up several legions in the neighborhood of Marseilles, Caesar crossed the Rhône and the Pyrenees with the legions VI, VII, VIIII, X, XI, XIV, XXVIII, XXIX and XXX, and defeated the Spanish army in the Battle of Ilerda, not far from modern Barcelona (2 August). In 47 bce he fought a brief local war in northeastern Anatolia with Pharnaces, king of the Cimmerian Bosporus, who was trying to regain Pontus, the kingdom of his father, Mithradates. In 52 bce, a year in which Pompey was elected sole consul and given a five-year provincial command in Spain, Caesar was allowed by a law sponsored by all 10 tribunes to stand for the consulship in absentia. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential … Cato had charged him with war crimes in Germania, and many people remembered Caesar's first consulship and the Spanish War. He attempted, however, by other means to bring about a negotiation of peace. All rights reserved. Caesar's Civil War When Caesar crossed the Rubicon, the Senate finally realized that they had made a terrible mistake. Filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked doubts must have disappeared Caesar... Was ready to return to Italy to attack the army first and Fifteenth legions to be sent the! 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